Enhancing the Value of Flour in Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies: A Impactful Solution Against Nutritional Challenges
Enhancing the Value of Flour in Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies: A Impactful Solution Against Nutritional Challenges
Although the enrichment of foods dates back to ancient times, the principles governing this practice were established through regulations in 1987. This regulation outlines three different purposes for the addition of nutrient elements to foods. The first, known as "Restoration," involves replacing lost nutrients during processing, storage, and transportation. The second, termed "Standardization," refers to adding missing nutrient elements to products similar to some traditional foods. The third is "Fortification," involving the addition of deficient nutrient elements to foods in cases of mandatory nutrient deficiencies.
Fortification practices are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States. The FDA's fortification policy permits the addition of only "mandatory" nutrient elements. Additionally, the added nutrient quantity must not exceed the approved nutrient supplement level or exceed the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) level.
Globally, over two billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies!
Contemporary issues related to healthy nutrition, a fundamental human right, include various problems. Among these, micronutrient deficiencies and inadequate nutrition issues such as stunting, dwarfism, and weakness are widespread worldwide. Micronutrient deficiencies represent a global public health problem, indicating the absence of essential micronutrients in the body. The most common micronutrient deficiencies include iron, folate, vitamin A, zinc, and iodine deficiencies. These deficiencies can lead to slowed growth and cognitive development, decreased intelligence, perinatal complications, and increased morbidity and mortality. Women of reproductive age and children under five are more affected by micronutrient deficiencies due to their higher micronutrient needs.
The fact that more than two billion people globally experience micronutrient deficiencies highlights a significant and attention-worthy public health problem, and food fortification is seen as a crucial intervention.
Food fortification can be rapidly implemented, with its benefits quickly realized; it is also a safe and cost-effective method for communities at risk of micronutrient deficiencies. The fortification of staple foods can make a significant contribution to combating hidden hunger globally, addressing the issue of nutrient-poor diets.
Adding Value to Flour in the Fight Against Micronutrient Deficiencies!
Turkey, the genetic center of Anatolia, has been home to the world's first settlement, Göbeklitepe, near Urfa, for 12,000 years. As the world's largest flour exporter since 2025 with a 21.1% share among 150 countries, Turkey plays a significant role in the distribution of enriched flour and combating global malnutrition. Modern humans' first source of nutrition, flour, is produced through the milling process of grains. Wheat and flour production, the most crucial activity in the country's economy related to agriculture and food sectors, carry substantial importance in terms of production, labor force, environmental impact, sustainability, and socioeconomic aspects.
Wheat and corn, in their natural state, may lose a significant portion of essential vitamins and minerals during milling processes. Therefore, adding some of these micronutrients back to the milled flour is referred to as flour fortification. The added nutrients include:
Iron: Vitamins and minerals used in fortification are vital to prevent health disorders associated with nutrient deficiency, such as anemia (iron deficiency), affecting approximately 2 billion people globally.
Zinc: Zinc is essential for supporting the immune system and cellular functions. Fortifying flour can reduce the risk of zinc deficiency. Enriching 100g of grain with 20 ppm of zinc can provide children with 20% of their daily zinc requirements.
Folic Acid: Particularly important during pregnancy, folic acid added through flour fortification can reduce the risk of neural tube defects.
B Vitamins (Thiamine, Riboflavin, and Niacin): B vitamins are crucial for energy metabolism and nervous system health. Fortification aims to prevent deficiencies in these vitamins. Especially, fortifying flour with B vitamins protects against neurological damage.
In some countries, flour fortification may also include other nutrients such as Vitamin A, Calcium, and B12. These additions aim to support general health and prevent nutritional deficiencies.
As Bastak Instruments, We Elevate Nutrition Standards!
Bastak Instruments, the first and only accredited laboratory in the country approved by the Ministry of Industry and Technology, serves with its 90 specialized branches and more than 265 expert personnel in its 5-star research and innovation center. With our state-approved Additive Production License, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Operation Registration Certificate, and Ministry of Health Production Permit Certificate, we provide flour fortification solutions worldwide, adding health and flavor, and tirelessly working for the health of future generations!
Enjoy the Taste of Pizza on World Pizza Day, Join the Flavor Feast!
Enjoy the Taste of Pizza on World Pizz Day, Join the Flavor Feast!
Pizza, prepared with crispy yeast dough and baked in the oven, was traditionally covered with tomato sauce, mozzarella cheese, and various toppings in the old days. However, nowadays, pizza has become a platform that pushes the boundaries of creativity. It can be topped with various savory ingredients, including sauces, meats, vegetables, and cheeses.
As seen, many people may perceive pizza as a low-nutrient food when they choose it. However, published data often show the opposite to be true. In fact, most pizzas are quite high in nutritional value. Serving as a good source of protein, pizza is also rich in complex carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.
Quality Control in Pizza Dough!
The pizza industry is a significant sector worldwide, hence there are many top ingredients that vary from country to country. Pizza is generally a flat tart made from bread dough. Pizza dough can be prepared chemically leavened or yeast-leavened. Flour is a basic ingredient in bakery products production, and there are various types of flour with different protein levels and qualities.
Pizza dough undergoes a process of freezing, storing, and thawing. Therefore, it's important for the flour used in frozen dough to have good strength and high protein content. Hard wheat varieties of flour with a protein content of 11-14% are often preferred for frozen dough products. Determine the protein property of pizza flour with the latest technology DA 9000 NIR device in less than 1 minute!
Traditionally consumed in European countries, especially Italy, pizza has commercial appeal in Latin American countries and the United States. This interest is based on reasons such as the low cost of the product and its ease of preparation for consumption. The basic formulation of pizza dough includes flour, water, salt, sugar, and yeast. Dough constitutes a large part of the product, and its appearance, texture, and taste are important characteristics for consumer acceptance and recognition. Therefore, dough quality is crucial as wheat flour, a structural component, and a basic ingredient play an important role in the quality of cooked foods.
Processing steps responsible for increasing the volume of dough and trapping gas include mixing and shaping the dough, dividing and shaping it, fermentation, stretching, and baking. Fermentation allows the dough to aerate; this occurs through the production of carbon dioxide in the aqueous phase of the dough and the formation of excess internal pressure forcing expansion in the alveoli. The stabilization of alveoli determines the structure and volume of the dough.
The dough is typically fermented at temperatures between 23 and 26 °C with baker's yeast until its initial volume increases 2-5 times or until the fermentation process. Despite most pizza dough production methods being similar, the lack of standardization reflects on parameters such as the appearance, height, texture, and other quality aspects of the final product. Achieving the appearance, consistency, taste, and consistency of the final product requires understanding gluten properties used in pizza dough. It is critical to determine gluten content of the flour used in crepe production for the purpose of identifying viscoelastic properties, baking behavior, and physical quality characteristics.
The edges of the pizza should be puffed up and gently browned. The dough should contain various sizes of pores so that the pizza has a light and tasty texture. The pizza dough should not be overly thick or too thin and crispy. For Quality Control in Pizza Dough, meet with Bastak Reology System Absograph 500 & Resistograph 500!
Identify the damaged starch amount with the SDCHEQ 15000 DEVICE, optimize your process, and achieve quality in your raw materials!
Pizzas are high in complex carbohydrates, particularly starches. Imbalance in starch damage or low protein levels can result in excessively sticky dough. Conversely, excessive amounts of pentosans and protein content in the flour can create a very loose dough.
With leading quality control devices from Bastak Instruments, the density of the dough is just right, the edges are puffy and lightly browned. With different sized pores in each slice, it's the key to that unique flavor. This pizza dough is perfectly balanced, neither too thick nor too thin; it has just the right taste and texture you're looking for. Now, all that's left is to pair this amazing dough with delicious ingredients and start the pizza feast!
Savor the Taste of Crepes on World Crepe Day, Join the Flavor Festival!
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"The pancake, an indispensable part of the gastronomic world, appears as a widely consumed delicacy in many cultures worldwide.
French crepes are predominantly consumed as a traditional festival dessert in the French food industry. About 10% of the total production is exported to the United Kingdom.
The main ingredients of a crepe include flour, eggs, sugar, and butter. The crepe batter is similar to pancake batter but has a much higher water content. The final water content of a cooked crepe, when stored in a sealed package for approximately one month, is similar to that of a pancake (0.75/0.80).
Quality Control in Crepe Batter!
The foundation of the crepe's flavor lies in the quality of the batter. The composition, ratios, and ingredients used in the batter have a decisive impact on the texture and taste of the crepe. Therefore, regular quality control is essential to ensure that the batter consistently meets quality standards.
In sweet crepe batters, soft wheat flour is commonly used. T45 French flour, applicable to France, is often preferred for making crepes. Soft flour used in pastry products like cakes, cookies, and tarts has a protein content ranging from 6% to 11%. This type of flour offers a specific characteristic and stands out with its texture. Its water absorption capacity is 25% to 50% less than that of hard flours. Soft wheat flour has low gluten content (7.5/9) and is an ideal choice to add flavor and texture to pastries and crepes.
Main Quality Control Criteria in Crepe Production:
- Quality of the main raw material, flour, in the batter
- Bubble structure of the batter
- Thickness of the batter
- Fat content
- Cooking temperature
For quality control in crepe flour, Bastak Instruments with European Approval ICC No.189 and No. 192 standards are used!
When making crepe batter, water is mixed with gluten to make the batter elastic and give it a soft texture. Starch absorbs water in milk, increasing its volume, and the batter thickens.
Knowing the properties of the gluten used in crepe batter is crucial for the structure and texture of the batter. The flour used in crepe production has low gluten content (7.5/9).
Determine the protein characteristics of the flour with the DA 9000 NIR device in less than a minute using state-of-the-art technology!
Compared to soft wheat flours, hard wheat flours have higher protein content and consequently higher gluten content. Studies show that gluten content in soft wheat flour varies between 15.8% and 42.1%.
Optimize crepe texture with the Bastak Gluten Quality System, which complies with ICC No. 192 standards, with internationally proven results and test accuracy.
Soft wheat flours, when compared, have a characteristic texture due to their protein content of 6% to 11% and low gluten content (7.5/9). Their high-quality starch content enhances liquid gelatinization, resulting in a moist and light texture and a unique flavor.
To achieve the desired appearance, consistency, taste, and texture in the final product, use Bastak Reology System - Absograph 500 & Resistograph 500!
The water absorption capacity or the amount of water the flour can absorb significantly influences the properties of the dough and the final product. The dough's consistency and viscosity depend on the water absorbed by the flour. Using too little water can make the dough hard and dry, while using too much water can make it sticky and challenging to process.
Key quality control criteria for crepes include bubble structure and determining the optimal thickness of the batter. Although crepe batter is similar to pancake batter, it has a higher water content. The thickness of a cooked crepe in French crepes should not exceed 1mm.
For soft wheat lines, absorption varies between 50.7% and 59.0%. The optimum water absorption capacity of wheat flour is 60.2±0.15 (v/w, based on flour weight), arrival time 0.35 minutes, departure time 3.0 minutes, and stability ranging from 2.65 minutes.
Optimize your process by determining the damaged starch amount with the SDCHEQ 15000 device, and achieve quality in your raw materials!
Imbalances in starch damage or low protein levels can result in excessively sticky dough. On the other hand, an excess of pentosan and protein content in flour can create a very loose dough.
Your crepe batter is prepared to perfect standards. What makes your crepe special is the wide range of ingredient options. You can personalize your crepe with ingredients ranging from Nutella and bananas to resin. Whether sweet or savory, it's entirely up to you!"
How to Make the Most Delicious Donut?
Donuts are delicious snacks enjoyed with pleasure worldwide.
In its simplest form, donuts are typically made from a dough containing flour, water, sugar, eggs, and usually yeast or baking powder. The dough is then shaped into circles or other forms, fried to a golden brown in hot oil, and then coated with sugar, glaze, or other toppings.
The key to creating a true flavor celebration in donut production lies not only in the dough processing process but also in quality ingredients and quality control processes. Establishing an effective quality control system in the donut production process is crucial for elevating customer satisfaction, minimizing costs, labor, and time losses in the production process, and increasing brand value.
Let's take a look at our most delicious donut recipe!
The production of the most delicious donuts usually starts with wheat-based flour. Therefore, knowing the physical, chemical, and rheological properties of the flour to be used in production is critical for both the producer and the consumer.
The moisture content of donuts is directly related to the quality of the final product, which is flour. The adverse effects of moisture factors during storage can lead to sensory changes, causing the sugar on the donut surface to dissolve and loss of smoothness.
With the high-precision sensors coated in gold on Bastak Moisture Meter Device, moisture analysis is performed in 40 different sample types within 8-10 seconds in compliance with international standards.
The effects of starch, as the basic component of flour, vary depending on the damaged starch amount. Usually, 70-75% of flour consists of starch, but this ratio can vary depending on diversities and environmental factors. When the dough is kneaded, starch interacts with water, protein, fat, and other molecules, playing a crucial role, especially in gluten binding, as a filling material. Damaged starch granules absorb four times more water than undamaged starch.
Lack of damaged starch or low protein levels can lead to excessively sticky dough. On the other hand, excessive pentosan and protein in flour can create a very brittle dough. Instead of long and tedious analyzes to determine the damaged starch value, opt for the efficient Bastak 15000 SD Check! By detecting the amount of damaged starch with the SDCHEQ 15000 Device, optimize your process in donut production and capture quality in raw materials!
In order to achieve perfection in donuts with the DA 9000 NIR Device by Bastak Instruments, which operates on the principle of near-infrared transform with NIR technology, which includes in international standards from raw material supply to final product control in all processes, determine the protein content of flour in less than a minute.
Our flour, with Bastak Instruments' devices with precision control up to a thousandth of a millimeter, passed quality control tests with European-approved ICC No.189 and 192 standards, proving its excellent quality in the international arena!
Things to consider for a great dough; Let's start by obtaining a delicious dough. To achieve an ideal and quality dough in donut production, let's start with quality control tests on flour. When flour is mixed with water, it contains proteins called gluten and gliadin, which form gluten when mixed with water. Gluten provides the elasticity of the dough and allows it to expand without breaking, which is important for forming the structure of the donut.
Achieve optimization in Donut Texture with Bastak Gluten Quality System! Gluten strands, interacting with other strands and molecules, form networks that provide the flexibility of the dough. Bastak Gluten Q-System has ICC No. 192 standard, and its results and test accuracy have been proven in the international arena.
To achieve the perfect dough consistency in donuts, it is important to observe the amount of water added to the mixture correctly. If the dough contains too much water, it can cause the donuts to look defective, create large holes, and absorb more oil. If the dough is too firm, it results in a thick crust, a rough and broken surface on one side, and excessive oil absorption in cracks.
Insufficient kneading of the dough can result in a very firm and elastic product, requiring a longer fermentation time and not filling the baking tray or paper to the desired extent. Insufficient kneading generally produces a low-volume, dense, poorly symmetrical, or collapsed final product. Over-kneading the dough, on the other hand, can result in process difficulties such as excessively sticky dough, too loose elasticity, yielding donuts with excessive volume, large crumb bubbles, and other unwanted characteristics.
In donuts; Use Bastak Reology System Absograph 500 & Resistograph 500 to capture the appearance, consistency, and quality, taste, and consistency;! The unmatched and state-of-the-art reology system of Bastak Instruments provides the ideal dough consistency. Options of Bastak Absograph 500 & Resistograph 500 with universal standards offer perfect process optimization for the manufacturer at this critical stage by evaluating dough properties.
Finally, to make your dough super soft, add a little love and a little sugar.
Bastak is Stronger in its 25th Year
A QUARTER CENTURY CENTRUIES-OLD POWER FLAWLESS TECHNOLOGY!
In 25 years, so much can happen...
Centennial trees grow, mountains rise, distances are covered, people evolve, and the world changes. With our hard work and hopes, for 25 years, we have been tirelessly working towards achieving our goals with every step we take.
Today, as Bastak Instruments, the first and only R&D and Innovation hub in Turkey and the world, with 195 engineers, 72 types of quality control devices, technological and fast solutions that simplify modern life, and advanced sensors, reaching a leading position in the field did not happen in a day.
Let's go back a little,
Founded in 1999 by Zeki Demirtaşoğlu, Bastak Instruments, the first of the Bastak Group Companies, has been realizing its centuries-old dreams in its quarter-century adventure while adding flavor to food, energizing life and designing the future with its expert and international personnel in order to leave a livable world for future generations with the power it derives from its values in the fields of food, flour, grain, seed, oilseed, legume and feed quality control devices, robotic sampling systems with Turkey's and the world's first patent and utility model, 35 different flour additives.
We take pride in representing our country internationally, contributing to the world and our nation, leading in science and academia with our pioneering ICC Standard 189 and ICC Standard 192 standards, along with our 4 analysis methods and 9 devices featured in the ICC booklet, making us the first and only in Turkey.
Under the umbrella of Bastak Academy, we sign international seminars and symposiums, offering a enriched learning experience with online and face-to-face training sessions, articles, and academic studies. We aim to create a continuous learning environment and strive for equal opportunities in education. We focus on science and innovation.
Today, on every corner of the globe, from Turkey to Colombia, Indonesia to Algeria, India to Russia, we leave our mark on life-changing state-of-the-art technology projects. We rise with our contributions to food safety, food assurance, and human life, drawing strength from our experiences.
While serving our country's and the world's economy, science and innovation, and the health and life of humanity, we hope to continue our success in the journey of wheat that began 12,000 years ago in Anatolia, at Göbeklitepe, and to cherish our ancestral seeds for many centuries to come.
Zeleny Sedimentation Analysis in Food
Zeleny Sedimentation Analysis in Food
Mısra Adıyaman, Quality Control Engineer, Bastak Instruments
Throughout the ages, the strategic importance of wheat, the primary ingredient of bread, has remained unaltered. The key factors that determine the bread quality of wheat, the cornerstone of bread production, are its ash content, protein quantity, and quality. The variation in quality observed in bread made from wheat with the same protein quantity can be attributed to the unique characteristics of the protein. The quantity and quality of protein in wheat and flour are among the most crucial factors that determine the intended use. Therefore, the accurate, reliable, and speedy determination and testing of protein quantity and quality during the raw material's transformation into the final product is a significant point for both producers and consumers.
In obtaining the desired qualities of the final product and in determining protein quality and gluten, the Zeleny Sedimentation value, which is directly proportional to the bread volume, must be established. Due to the presence of proteolytic activity in the secretions of weevils and mites, which adversely affect wheat quality, they cause disruption in the dough quality and its characteristics during fermentation.
In the classification of wheat and the characterization of wheat flour, it is observed that measuring the sedimentation value, along with protein and gluten quantity, is necessary. Among these quality parameters, a linear mathematical relationship exists between the quantity of protein and wet gluten. It is known that the Zeleny sedimentation value in the flour is associated with the composition of wheat protein and is related to protein quantity.
The sedimentation value is influenced by genetic factors and environmental conditions; however, genetic factors exert a greater influence than environmental conditions. The Zeleny sedimentation value is affected by genetic factors and environmental factors, particularly the adverse effects caused by the weevil pest.
With 7,000 square meters of covered area, Bastak's factory produces the 3100 model Sedimentation 3100 (Zeleny) Device, which is equipped with state-of-the-art technology and considered the best in the world in terms of machine quality. It is used for the determination of the pasta and bread quality and weevil (insect) damage in accordance with international standards for samples obtained from commercial flour, wheat flour, whole wheat flour, durum wheat flour, bulgur, vital gluten, vermicelli, and semolina.
The device has the capability to perform tests using physicochemical methods. In the standard sedimentation test, the protein quality of the sample is analyzed, while the Delayed (modified) Sedimentation test is used to control the amount of protease enzyme due to weevil damage in bakery products. Protease enzyme can negatively impact the appearance and gas-holding quality of the final product by breaking down proteins. The Bastak brand 3100 model sedimentation device can perform both traditional sediment tests and modified sediment tests.
With a wide range of samples, including red, white, and pasta wheat, as well as commercial flour, wheat flour, whole wheat flour, durum wheat flour, bulgur, vital gluten, vermicelli, and semolina, the device provides a unique analysis experience to users. It includes a color graphic LCD screen, 13 function buttons, comprehensive function capabilities, microprocessor control, membrane technology, 40 cycles per minute, and a 30° working angle, all in accordance with ICC Standard.
Sampling Systems for Cereal Products
Sampling Systems for Cereal Products
Ayşe Nur Akpınar, PhD., Bastak Instruments, Türkiye.
Cereals and cereal products, which are the staple food of mankind, have been the source of farmers, millers, feed, food industry, trade, science, and consumers worldwide for thousands of years.
The most important stages in determining the quality of Grain and Grain Products is to sample in accordance with the standards, prepare the sample as stipulated by the specifications, prepare the minimum amount determined by the regulations to be sent to the laboratory for the first analysis and finally analyze it accordingly.
While dry cereal grains with low moisture content generally show little change during normal storage, some negative changes are observed with the increase in moisture content and temperature of the grains. Under inappropriate storage conditions, many adverse conditions such as browning, mold, germination, rotting, seizing, burning, rancidity, and alcohol odor formation occur due to these changes and as a result, serious economic losses occur.
A part of the mass taken from the piles of grain and grain products to determine any property of the pile and subjected to various chemical, physical and biological analyses is called a sample. Representative sample; The sample that covers the result obtained as a result of the analysis of a sample is the representative sample of the stack.
In order to carefully examine the physical and chemical changes occurring in the storage process of cereals and to take the necessary measures quickly against possible negative changes, samples are taken from the stacks of cereals and cereal products at certain periods to represent the entire sample mass and the physical, chemical and biological properties of these samples are examined, and time and ground are created for taking the necessary measures by detecting the problems occurring in the storage of cereals before they occur or at the initial stage. Otherwise, in the late detection of problems to be seen in grain samples, the complete disposal of the grain pile, production inputs, time, labor and energy consumption are seen.
The sampling of granular products such as cereals, cereals, oil seeds, and pulses differs and probes are generally used for granular materials in sampling processes.
Sampling systems known in the literature and used in industry are hand probes, horizontal probes, and vertical probes. In horizontal probe systems, the mouth of the probe is inserted into the load with the probe pointing towards the bottom, rotated 180°, and slowly withdrawn to collect a single sample from the entire cross-section. To ensure that the sample is representative, the granular element in each sample batch is collected from three different heights (upper, middle, and lower levels) and from different points. In the case of vertical probes, three different methods of sampling are possible.
- a) It is a method of sampling from a single chamber with a single or double pipe system with only pulling (vacuum) or pulling (vacuum) + pushing (blowing) method starting from the sample surface until it reaches the bottom of the vehicle body or from the vehicle body to the vehicle surface.
- b) When the specially designed probe patented by Bastak Company with at least 8 or more sampling chambers on the sample probe reaches the required depth, the sample chambers are opened and the sample is filled into the probe from the chambers and then the chambers are closed by rotating the movable inner chamber. When the probe is taken out of the vehicle, the vacuum process is started and the sampling process is carried out.
- c) It is a single chamber sampling method (generally used in mines such as fertilizer, coal, etc.) with a single pipe system with a single spiral method starting from the sample surface until it reaches the bottom of the vehicle body or from the vehicle body to the vehicle surface.
In addition to this; manual sampling method can also be used for taking samples from large piles such as wagons, trucks and lorries. In the manual sampling method, the personnel stand on the granular pile and take the sample manually with brass or aluminum long rods, which are defined as hand probes, ranging from 1-2 m in length. However, there are some problems in this case; the main one is that the sample cannot be taken correctly due to the sloppy work of the sampling personnel. In this case, if the sample does not represent the main bulk sample correctly, no matter how accurate the subsequent physical and chemical analyses are, the result obtained is incorrect. Analyzing with a sample that does not have the correct representation can give false information about the quality of the granular product and in this case, it can cause great economic losses to the company that purchases the powder and granular product. In manual sampling process, occupational safety problems occur during sampling. At the beginning of this, during sampling from the pile, the risk of falling of the personnel climbing on the pile, in the case of sampling from each wagon, climbing up to the wagon, taking the sample, going back down, transporting it to the laboratory requires extra time and manpower. The maximum length of the hand probe is 2 metres and the stack height is much higher. Therefore, it is not possible to take samples from the bottom points with a hand probe. In addition, it is not possible to take accurate and homogenous samples in very cold and hot and rainy weather.
Fixed sampling systems used and known in the literature and industry do not take samples that are representative of the sample, but with the sampling device models mentioned above, it is possible to take real samples representing the product in the desired amount, in the desired regions and in the desired number from each layer of the products with probes determined according to the product characteristics.
As a result of analyzing with a sample that does not have the correct representation, incorrect information about the quality of powder and granular products is obtained. In this case, the company that purchases the product in the construction, mining, oilseed, oilseed, legume, grain and grain industry can suffer great economic losses.
With the 10500 model portable sampling device, with the help of servey companies, especially in the lodges on the ships, all grain, oilseed and legume trade is directed worldwide by taking samples in the desired quantity and quality.
Bastak Brand 10000, 10100, 10200, 10500 model sampling probes with grains such as wheat, barley, paddy, rye, oats as well as heavy products such as corn, beans, chickpeas with 10300 model coal probe and 10350 model fertiliser probe from trucks, ships, lorries and wagons with the mobility of sampling probes unlike existing devices in the industry; With the R&D studies carried out in Türkiye's first and only R&D center under the auspices of the Ministry of Industry of the Republic of Türkiye, 6 different model sampling systems have been configured to move on different lines at 240-360°C angles. Again, Bastak R&D Centre has patented a device that can take samples from multiple sampling chambers. The patented sampling device is the first and only device in the World with its features. Bastak Brand robotic sampling systems include at least one first gear in order to provide freedom of rotation between the upper body and the said lower body, and at least one worm gear configured to rotate around itself by associating with the said first gear, and the arm is rotated with maximum effect around the movement mechanism by rotating the upper body back to the lower body.
The 10000, 10000, 10100, 10200, 10200, 10300, 10350 and 10500 model sampling probes have a joystick arm configuration that can be extended and shortened, allowing sampling to be performed at different distances. Thanks to the remote control feature of the sampling probes, sampling is performed automatically by giving up, down, right, left, forward and backward commands from a distance of 40 metres.
It provides 6 (up, down, forward, backward, right, left) remote control functions at the same time, performs movements with pistons with a power of 2 tonnes, activates security measures when it touches the search box and has a new generation probe system, has a total scanning capacity of 9.7 meters, can take representative samples from 6 different points in 40 seconds, and can take representative samples from 6 different points in a single vacuum with its powerful hydraulic system, Bastak Brand sampling probes with 0.4-1 kilograms sampling capacity and 100% representative sampling are manufactured at world standards in Bastak Factory, which is a member of IAOM, AACC in the USA, ICC in Europe, DESMUD in Türkiye and has ICC, ISO, CE, Bipea, FSSC, US and European Utility Models and Patents, Turkish Accreditation Agency (TÜRKAK) Accredited Laboratory, TSE Service Competence Certificate.
Bastak Instruments has become an indispensable part of the fertilizer, construction, chemical, legume, oilseed, grain, and cereal products industries with more than 900 sampling probes in operation in Türkiye and all over the world. Our company, which produces 72 quality control devices, robotic sampling systems, and 35 types of flour additives, continues to invest especially in legume, oilseed, grain, cereal products, and world milling.
Standardization in Food Analysis and Control
Standardization in Food Analysis and Control
PhD, Food Engineer, Ayşenur Akpınar, Bastak Instruments
Bastak Instruments has introduced a new ICC Method to the world!
With the rapid scientific and technical advancements in the global food industry, ensuring food quality and safety, as well as increasing the control and utilization values of food, has become extremely important.
Quality control in food has always held a significant position due to its direct impact on human health. The rapid advancements in food science and technology, rationalization in the food industry, storage, and transportation issues have increased the importance of food quality and control due to the improper practices in these fields.
In every country and in international trade, international food standards and methods are being developed to ensure the quality and control of food, to create a reliable environment in production and consumption, to apply effective quality control in food products, to determine the nutritional qualities of food substances, and to support scientific and academic studies.
Bastak Instruments; by following the developing technologies for a quarter of a century to contribute to the improvement of food quality, food safety, and food security of feed, legumes, seeds, oilseeds, grains, and grain products worldwide, continues to support scientific and sectoral research. One of our goals is to introduce our ICC Standard 189 and ICC Standard 192 methods approved by the International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC) in the last two years for global use.
The International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC), headquartered in Austria (Vienna), and with Bastak Instruments' Founder and CEO Zeki Demirtaşoğlu as a technical committee member, is an international network represented on five continents by members consisting of grain scientists and technology experts from around the world. ICC puts forward international standard methods and scientific updates for all grain scientists and technology experts.
For over 60 years, ICC standard methods applied in the safety and quality assessment of grains and grain products, food, and feed have provided guidance to international trade, national and international regulations such as ISO and TSE industry standards, and serve as a guide for food producers and control laboratories for food quality control, safety, and security for the health and well-being of all individuals. By introducing 4 new ICC methods to the world, Bastak Instruments has pioneered in Turkey and globally.
Our method studies on the determination of wet gluten, gluten index, and dry gluten of wheat flour and whole wheat flour using Bastak Quality Control devices, namely the 4000 and 4500 model Roller Mills, the 1900 model Hammer Mill, and Gluten Q-System; 6100 model Gluten Cheq, 2100 model Index Centrifuge Cheq, 2500 model Dry Cheq devices have been accepted by the International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC) under the number 192 standard.
Gluten protein, which forms the skeleton of the dough and is considered the most important quality criterion, affects the kneading, processing, and gas-holding capacity of the dough, ensuring the bread's leavening and porous structure. The quantity and quality of gluten provide information on the purpose of the wheat being used. The experiments of our method, titled 'Estimation of Alpha-Amylase Activity Level based on Viscosity in the Determination of Falling Number,' using Bastak equipment as per the ICC No. 192 standard, have been conducted by quality control laboratories and scientists in many countries in Europe, and its accuracy has been unquestionably accepted worldwide.
Amilolytic enzymes play an important role in the formation of sugars necessary for the formation of fermentation in dough making. If alpha and beta amylase enzymes are not present in sufficient levels in the environment, the sugars necessary for fermentation cannot produce enough CO2 for the bread to rise, resulting in reduced bread volume and significantly affecting quality. Therefore, amylase is an important parameter in determining bread quality. Our method study named 'Estimation of Alpha-Amylase Activity Level based on Viscosity in the Determination of Falling Number' using the Bastak FNCheq device and its prediction of the alpha-amylase activity level through viscosity for the Falling Number test was accepted by the International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC) as Standard No. 189 in 2021 and made available for global use.
For over a quarter of a century, Bastak Instruments, which produces with superior technical specifications in our country's and humanity's future with 72 grain quality control devices, the first and only patented and useful model robotic sample collection systems, and 35 types of flour additives approved by the Ministry of Industry and Technology of the Republic of Turkey in the first and only R&D Center, has put forward 4 new methods in the ICC booklet, and our methods will be taught and used in various sectors, particularly in universities, in many countries such as the USA, Europe, and Canada. We will continue to guide experts and scientists who will work on researching and developing more reliable food sources for humanity with the methods we have put forth. Also, by following the developing technologies, we will continue to support scientific and sectoral research.
DETERMINATION OF ALPHA AMYLASE ACTIVITY IN THE CEREAL INDUSTRY
DETERMINATION OF ALPHA AMYLASE ACTIVITY IN THE CEREAL INDUSTRY
Rabia Tiryaki, MsC., Bastak Instruments
Proteolytic and amylolytic enzyme activity has an important place in determining the bread quality of flour, our most important staple food and the gold of the milling industry. CO2 gas, which is necessary for the rising of dough and bread, is formed from sugars formed by the action of amylase from existing or damaged starch in the fermentation process.
Amylolytic enzymes play an important role in the formation of sugars required for the formation of fermentation in dough making, and in the absence of sufficient levels of alpha and beta amylase enzymes in the environment, the sugars required for fermentation will not be able to form enough CO2 to allow the bread to rise, the volume of bread will decrease and the quality will be significantly affected. Therefore, amylase is an important parameter in determining bread quality.
Losses in cereal crops due to germination damage, which is irregular and difficult to predict as a function of weather conditions, are quite large. There is a rapid increase in the amylolytic activity of wheat with germination, a decrease in the amount of glassy grain and an increase in the percentage of damaged grain and bran. The dough made from wheat flours with high amylase activity becomes stodgy and difficult to work; the bread is sticky, the pores are small and the volume is insufficient.
In places where the weather is dry or semi-arid during ripening and harvesting, wheat samples usually show insufficient and low amylase activity with normal milling process. Breads obtained from flour with low amylase activity have small volume, pale crust colour and dry crust.
CO2 gas formation increases in doughs made from flours with normal amylase enzyme activity. The crust colour of the bread is at the desired level, the pore structure of the bread is improved and the gas holding capacity of the dough is increased and an increase in bread volume is observed.
The most advanced method to determine enzyme activity in flour and wheat is Falling Number test. Falling Number analysis is the most effective method accepted in the world for the determination of α-amylase activity and is performed with Bastak Brand Falling Number 5000 and 5100 devices, which have been producing with the world's most advanced machinery in the field of food quality control devices for 24 years. This test is based on the principle of measuring the time required for liquefaction of starch by alpha amylase enzyme by rapid gelatinization of flour and water mixture.
In a good bread flour, falling number value (falling number) should be between 200-250 seconds. In general, values of 250 and above give an idea that there is no climate damage in wheat. If the falling number is higher than 300, alpha amylase activity is low, fermentation takes place slowly and breads made from these flours have low volume, dry inside and short shelf life. Breads made from flours with a Falling Number lower than 150 have a sticky consistency, fermentation is fast, low volume, low shelf life and dark colour.
Falling Number value is used by millers to produce products with preferred falling number value, to adjust the baking process, to determine the final quality of the product both incoming and produced in the industry and to ensure its consistency, by bakers to inform suppliers of the type of product they need for their final products and to save time and money.
Bastak brand 5000 and 5100 model FN Cheq (Falling Number) devices, which have more than 20.000 devices in operation in thousands of flour, bread, pasta, biscuit, cereal industry manufacturers, universities, research industries and cereal quality control analysis laboratories worldwide, determine the alpha amylase enzyme amount of 2 samples of commercial flour, wheat flour, whole wheat flour, durum wheat flour, bulgur, vital gluten, noodle, semolina at the same time in 10 minutes. Falling Number "FN" measurement mode is used to determine the amount of natural alpha amylase enzyme. "FFN" measurement mode is used to determine the total (microbiological + natural) alpha amylase enzyme amount. It has the ability to correct the analysis results according to ICC standards. The device automatically adjusts the boiling temperature, which is the FN test temperature, according to sea level. FFN test temperature of 90°C is also set automatically by the device.
When the amount of alpha amylase enzyme is low, the starch in pasta, biscuits and bakery products will not be broken down sufficiently, resulting in a harder dough and again deteriorating the quality of the final product. Apart from this feature, the FN Cheq device also gives an idea about the harvest conditions in the field, transport conditions and storage conditions in warehouses.
Bastak FN Cheq device, which uses world class methods, is microprocessor controlled and has ergonomic design. During the test, company name, date, time, boiler temperature, boiler water level, test mode, test time and the work of the device (running, printing, stop etc.) can be seen on the LCD screen. The boiler water level automatically stops the operation of the device with 'water low' and 'water level high' warnings. The amount of malt enzyme to be added according to the desired FN value, "LN It has the ability to calculate the liquefaction value of the sample with the key.
Bastak FNX Shaker 5050 falling number, one of the accessories of the FN Cheq device, provides operator-independent results of the analysis samples to be tested, mixes the sample in the same way every time, provides high repeatability of the analysis result and increases laboratory efficiency by reducing the sample mixing time to 3 seconds. Bastak FN 5025 Cooling Tower provides cooling water circulation and saves time and cost with its robust and ergonomic structure.
IMPORTANCE OF STARCH INJURY IN WHEAT AND MILLING INDUSTRY
Wheat, which is the most consumed foodstuff among cereal crops, has maintained its indispensable place and importance in human nutrition throughout the ages as a strategic product. On the other hand, wheat and flour production activities have once again revealed the economic value of the flour industry and the need of countries in terms of food security with the food crisis that started in 2007 and the global economic crisis that started in 2008 and continues.
Water, ash, protein, gluten, gluten index, gluten index, Zeleny sedimentation, starch and starch damage are the main chemical and physicochemical properties of wheat, one of the most internationally traded agricultural products in history, and flour or semolina produced from wheat. The amount of starch, which is the main component of wheat flour, has a very important effect on bakery products. Starch forms the dough structure by interacting with other components in the dough. Water absorption, one of the important functional parameters of starch, affects the quality and texture of bakery products. Intact starch granules have the ability to absorb approximately 0.33 times their weight in water, while damaged starch granules can absorb up to their weight in water. Starch grains are found in the endosperm in a regular and orderly structure between protein networks. However, they lose their structure completely or partially during the milling of wheat. The resulting flour contains damaged starch as well as undamaged starch granules in different proportions. Depending on the grinding system and the adjustment of the rolls, the amount and texture of the damaged starch varies. The amount of starch damage has become an important quality parameter of interest to all sectors based on the production of cereal products, especially in recent years. It has become a routine analysis in many bread production industries and cereal quality control laboratories after the inevitable effect of starch damage on the final product was demonstrated. To obtain dough of suitable consistency, the absorption of flours containing excessively damaged starch must be reduced. Excessive starch damage reduces bread volume and affects bread quality by deteriorating the properties of the bread. For good bread making, the flour to be used must contain a certain level of damaged starch. Excessive increase in this ratio reduces the ability to hold gas when there is not enough gluten to cover the excess surface area, and affects the fermentation process very negatively. For the pasta industry, the amount of damaged starch has an important place in quality parameters. During pasta making, damaged starches constitute a substrate for amylase. They break down and increase the amount of substance passing into the cooking water and cause turbidity. In the pasta industry, semolina, which is a milling product with low starch damage, is preferred. For the biscuit industry; soft grain structure, lower protein and higher starch ratio constitute the appropriate quality feature. The amount of starch damage affects the breakage rate of biscuits. In the biscuit industry, semolina and flour are used as grinding products with low starch damage. The amount of damaged starch has a direct relationship with enzyme activity. Alpha and beta amylase enzymes in wheat can only break down damaged starch. Considering that different products are obtained by utilizing different properties of wheat fractions in different ways in wheat processing, it is essential to determine the optimum damaged starch property to produce the product under optimum conditions. Considering that the quality parameters for millers who process wheat firstly are flour yield and high grinding quality; the amount of damaged starch, which will constantly change due to factors such as the distance adjustments of the rolls used in flour production, various pulping rate in the raw material during production, annealing amount, annealing time, aging of the rolls, heating of the rolls, roll revolutions, sample flow amount, should be kept under control by continuous testing during production. Instead of long and difficult analyses to determine the damaged starch value, Bastak 15000 SDCheq analyzes the amount of iodine absorbed by starch granules with a very small amount (1 g) of sample using electrochemical amperometric method. It can determine dough fermentation conditions, dough water absorption, dough rheological properties, dough baking performance, aroma formation of end products, standard flour production, biscuit breakage rate, and prevention of roll aging. Bastak 15000 SDCheq analysis is performed in five stages. In the first stage, the analysis solution is automatically brought to the world standard temperature of 35°C. In the second stage, the iodine content of the analysis solution is measured and the solution color changes from transparent to yellow. In the third step, the analysis sample is automatically poured. In the fourth stage, the amount of iodine absorbed by the starch granules is measured and the solution turns black. In the final stage, the high-resolution touchscreen displays the damaged starch value in %AI in current and other special units (UCD, UCDc and Farrand). SDCheq is self-calibrating and self-cleaning before each test and complies with AACC 76-33, ICC No.172, AFNOR V03-731 standards.
Sugar Beet Fiber and Guar Gum Impact Dough Rheological Properties
Hamza Ceylan, Merve Arıbaş, PhD, Özen Özboy Özbaş, Prof.Dr., Aksaray University
Sugar beet fiber (SBF) has been used in food technology as a source of dietary fiber (DF). The incorporation of SBF into cookie, bread, spaghetti, extrusion product, Frankfurter, Turkish-type salami, tarhana has been studied because of its excellent functional and physiological properties.
In food industry, guar gum (GG) is also used as a novel food additive in various food products for food stabilization and as DF source. However, there is limited information available in literatüre on the reological behaviours of SBF and GG in wheat flour-dough systems.
So, the present preliminary study was planned to study the effects of incorporation of SBF and GG on rheological properties of wheat flour.
For rheological analysis, commercial white wheat flour from a local industrial mill (moisture, ash and protein contents were 13.2, 0.72 and 10.5 % d.d., respectively), guar gum and salt were used. Fibrex (F) was a commercial fiber product (including 67% of DF) originnating from sugar-beet (Sweden). Sample of flour and flour blended with F (3%, 6%, 9%) and flour blended with GG (0.5 %, 1%, 1.5 %) were analyzed for rheological characteristics of dough by using Absograph 500 and Resistograph 500 equipments (Bastak Instruments, Ankara, Türkiye). Water absorption (WA, %), development time (DT, min), stability (ST, min) and FQN (farinograph quality number) were determined from the Absograph 500 curves. The parameters obtained from the Resistograph 500 curves were extensibility (Ex, rupture, mm), energy (A, cm2), tensile resistance (Rs, BU), maximum tensile resistance (Rm, BU), ratio of resistance to extensibility (Rs/Ex) and ratio of maximum tensile resistance to extensibility (Rm/Ex) of dough were summarized at 135 min. The Absograph 500 and Resistograph 500 tests were made in duplicate and the mean values are presented in Table 1.
From the Absograph 500, the dough sample where the flour had not been substituted by F and GG had low WA, DT, and FQN with values 63.6%, 0.9 min, and 23, respectively. These parameters varied from 64.7 to 67.5%, 1.0 to 7.8 min, 28 to 110, respectively, and for ST from 2.0 to 8.0 min for the dough samples with F substitution. For the dough samples with GG addition, these values varied from 65.9 to 69.9%, 1.1 to 1.2 min, and 22 to 29, respectively. High WA values for blends of flour and F and GG have also been reported earlier. The substitution of flour with F and GG, independent of the concentration, decreased the ST of dough, while the DT increased with increasing F content when compared to the control and the GG substituted samples. The sample with 6% of F had the highest FQN when compared to the other samples.
From the Resistograph 500 data, dough made with unsubstituted flour (no F or GG) showed characteristics of a weak-medium dough, with resistance to extension at constant deformation (Rs) and extensibility (Ex) of 349 BU and 92 mm, respectively, at the final rest time (135 min). Rs and Ex values ranged from 706 to 742 BU and from 112 to 79 mm, respectively, for the dough samples substituted with F. The values for the same parameters (Rs and Ex) for the dough samples with GG were between 576 to 520 BU and 120 to 124 mm, respectively. The rest time was important for the
Table 1. Rheological parametes1 of wheat flour-F and wheat flour-GG dough
1 F: Fibrex, GG: Guar Gum, WA: Water Absorption, DT: Development Time, ST: Stability,
FQN: Farinograph Quality Number, Ex: Extensibility, A: Energy, Rs: Tensile Resistance,
Rm: Maximum Tensile Resistance, Rs/Ex: Ratio of Resistance to Extensibility,
Rm/Ex: Ratio of Maximum Tensile Resistance to Extensibility.
higher addition of both F and GG substituted samples, which needed the highest rest time (135 min) in order to reach maximum resistance. The addition of F and GG to wheat flour brought some changes in the dough mixing behaviour as measured by Absograph 500 and Resistograph 500 and these absographic and resistographic characteristics of flour supplemented with F indicate that F supplemented flour can be used for making good quality bread. Results also indicate that incorporation of GG to the wheat flour increased the Ex value.
However, further researches are needed in order to determine the effects of incorporation of different levels of Fibrex and guar gum along with Fibrex on absographic and resistographic characteristics and to understand if Fibrex can be utilized with guar gum for value addition.
The authors wish to thank Bastak Instruments (Ankara, Türkiye) for making facilities available for this study. 867 words
DETERMINATION OF THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF DOUGH
Rabia Tiryaki, MSc., Bastak Instruments
Food products with wheat as the main raw material are obtained by baking dough formed by water, wheat flour, and other added components and additives depending on the type of wheat flour and product. The rheological properties of dough formed by certain processes from wheat change throughout the processing time, directly affecting the quality of baked products and forming the key to grain chemistry.
The primary gluten-containing protein content in wheat flour is responsible for gas retention, structure formation, and dough strength. Protein content is the most commonly used criterion in determining wheat quality, with the protein content to water absorption ratio changing based on protein quality. The amount of water added to the flour during dough making significantly affects its rheological properties.
Key steps in food processing involving dough formation include kneading, shaping, and fermentation. Physical and chemical changes occur in the dough due to the mechanical force applied during kneading. The kneading process, which largely affects the final product quality, is a crucial parameter in evaluating dough quality.
Dough rheology, encompassing flow and deformation studies, is based on measuring the force exerted during controlled deformation or stress applied to the dough. Rheological analyses provide essential information in the food industry by determining differences in flour qualities, selecting appropriate raw materials, and identifying changes occurring in the dough during fermentation. Particularly in non-Newtonian substances examined with shear stress, determining rheological properties is crucial in baking. The concept of dough rheology, commonly described in doughs with water content ranging from 35% to 55%, includes characteristics such as extensibility, elasticity, resistance, maximum resistance, energy, water absorption, development time, softening degree, and stability, allowing producers to determine how wheat will be processed.
Moreover, obtained rheological data play a critical role in selecting and developing new cultures, quality control in milling and bakery products, detecting the effects of added components in the production process, and process adaptation.
The desired rheological properties vary for different wheat products. Optimum extensibility desired in wheat products varies for each item; for instance, in bread production, high values during the final fermentation stage and early baking are desirable. While bread requires high extensibility and resistance, biscuits require high extensibility with low resistance to avoid collapse after setting during baking.
Bastak brand Absograf 500 and Resistograf 500 devices, critical in determining the rheological behavior of dough and the baking value of flour, are designed with high repeatability, accuracy, ease of use, remote software updates, complying with international standards to directly assess their impact on the final product quality.
Based on measuring the force exerted on device blades due to dough flowability, Bastak's Absograf 500 device analyzes the flour's water absorption, stability, softening value, and development time, meeting world standards and determining its suitability for baking and other products. With ergonomic design and a touchscreen interface, it offers easy usability, remote software support, saving test results as PDFs, storing results via USB flash drive, requiring no computer or screen during testing, and easy cleaning to provide users with an exceptional analysis experience.
The dough obtained following international standards with the Absograf 500 device is first shaped into dough balls in the dough rolling unit of the Bastak brand Resistograf 500 device. Then, in the dough rolling unit, it is shaped cylindrically and left in fermentation chambers at international standard temperatures. Multiple fermentation chambers save time. Utilizing research and development studies, a specialized rail system stretches the dough from bottom to top without the adverse effects of gravity, recording the applied force to obtain a graph. Elasticity, resistance, and energy of the dough are determined according to international standards to achieve ideal bakery products. The touchscreen PC-controlled heating system, parallel testing capability, Absograf 500's touchscreen, manual time control, and compatibility with the Absograf device without requiring a computer or screen allow tracking and saving data on the same touchscreen.
DETERMINATION OF GLUTEN FRACTIONS
Wheat, one of the cereal crops, which is the most important staple food in our diet, ranks first in the world and in our country in terms of cultivation and production area among plants.
In Turkey, cereals and cereal products are of great importance both in terms of consumption habits and their share in the economy, and our interest in wheat in particular stems from our nature of being the gene centre of Anatolia beyond our traditional eating habits. It has been determined that all wheat has its origin in the Karacadağ foothills near Urfa Göbeklitepe, the first settlement centre in the world. 198 bread and 61 durum registered varieties were identified as of 2016. In 2015, 22.6 million tonnes of wheat, corresponding to 3.3% of world production, was produced and four out of every five farmers in Turkey grow wheat.
Wheat quality is evaluated according to its suitability for the final product and one of the most important quality control criteria is protein content. Gluten, which is the most important component of gluten protein obtained from wheat flour or crushing, constitutes approximately 40% of the endosperm proteins in wheat flour.
Proteins determine many characteristic properties of the dough and gluten, which is hydrated in the mixture of flour and water and forms a network, spreads to the dough mass. Gluten protein hydration, which plays a role in gaining volume by keeping carbon dioxide bubbles in the dough during fermentation, has a great effect on oxidation.
According to the proportions of gluten in flour; it is classified as very strong, strong, powerful, extensible and weak. Rheological properties of proteins such as hydration capacity, oxidation and elasticity reflect the strength of flour. In this classification, the strength of flour is determined according to the amount and quality of gluten.
Wheat producers want to have the highest wheat yield, while wheat industrialists want to have the highest protein concentration at the lowest possible price.
Bakers want wheat to have a high gluten content; the higher the quantity and quality of gluten, the higher the gas holding capacity and the higher the bread yield and quality.
In the pasta industry, it is desired that minimum dry matter passes into the cooking water and that the pasta does not fall apart and stick during cooking. For this reason, protein quantity and quality of durum wheat is a very important issue.
In the biscuit, pastry and cracker industry; controlled rising of the products produced is desired. For this reason, it is desired that the protein ratio should be weak and soft at around 10% during the process.
The gluten feature in the total protein in wheat and flours is mainly effective on the rheological and technological properties of the dough and the researches are still continuing. International standards have been developed for the determination of gluten index value and quality and the gluten index value, which expresses the percentage by weight of the wet core remaining in the sieve after the gluten obtained is subjected to centrifugal force, has an important place in determining the quality.
One of these international standards is the ICC No.192 Standard (International Cereal Science and Technology Association (ICC)) for the determination of wet gluten, gluten index and dry gluten of wheat flour and whole wheat flour using Bastak Instruments' Bastak Quality Control Instruments: 6100 model Gluten Cheq, 2100 model Centrifuge Cheq and 2500 model Dry Cheq.
Bastak Gluten Quality System Instruments are used in thousands of flour, bread, pasta, biscuit, cereal industry manufacturers, universities, research institutes and quality control analysis laboratories worldwide. Bastak Gluten Quality System Devices is an approved world standard for determining the gluten amount, gluten index and dry gluten values in flour and semolina used in bread, pastry, biscuit and pasta in accordance with world standards, final product volume, baking and cooking quality.
Wet gluten, gluten index and dry gluten values obtained from flour, whole wheat flour, semolina, bulgur, vital gluten and vermicelli are determined in international standards with the Gluten Quality System. The Gluten Quality System is produced with 0.001 micron precision , the world's highest quality machine park and with the latest technology in Bastak factory with a closed area of 7000 square metres.
In addition, Bastak Teknoloji Systems Company's method study on the determination of 'Falling Number' depending on the Alpha-Amylase Activity level based on viscosity using the Falling Number Cheq device was presented to the world by the International Cereal Science and Technology Association (ICC) with the standard number 189.
PRODUCTS WITH DIFFERENT GRINDING METHODS
Wheat, the unique heritage offered to us by the soil and the staple food of mankind, has played an important role in our nutrition chain for thousands of years. Wheat and cereal products, which rank first among food sources, have played an important role in shaping human history. Wheat plant, which is the creature that affects the ecological tolerance in the world the most after human beings, is planted on approximately six million square kilometers in the world. In addition to being the main source of starch and energy, wheat consumption has increased to 66.8 kg/person globally due to its protein, vitamins, dietary fiber, phytochemicals and antioxidant activity necessary for human health.
Wheat and wheat products are the raw materials of many foodstuffs such as flour, semolina, bran, crushed wheat, gluten, germ and starch. It is estimated that there are 15 and 30 thousand wheat varieties. Economically, wheat varieties are divided into three; durum (triticum durum), bread (triticum aestivum) and biscuit (triticum compactum). Bread, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crackers with high commercial value are obtained with wheat and milling products with different properties.
The wheat grain consists of a multi-layered structure; some of these layers are: embryo, endosperm, aleuron layer, pericarp (inner shell) and seed coat. In general, the wheat grain consists of bran (14.5%), endosperm (83%) and embryo (2.5%). The purpose of milling wheat is to separate the flour or semolina (endospermia) from the shell and embryo layers. Wheat grain is divided into parts such as bran, flour and germ by grinding, and the chemical compositions of these separated parts differ.
It was determined that in Göbeklitepe, known as the zero point of history, was the beginning of the grinding process centuries ago. It has been seen that the homeland of wheat is Mesopotamia, Şanlıurfa and many grain goddesses are accepted and depicted on cylinder seals. Many evidences of rich bread diversity have been found in Mesopotamia, and findings proving the existence of bread wheat dating back 9 thousand years have been obtained in Çatalhöyük.
First of all, it was seen that grinding technology was used in Mesopotamia, in Göbeklitepe, Şanlıurfa, 12,000 years ago when the human beings were hunting and during the gathering period of collecting wild wheat and barley varieties and grinding them with grinding stones. Apart from hunting, it has been observed that they consume fermented foods by leaving the foods to fermentation.
Mills are one of the oldest traditional production structures. Rotary stone mills operating with human and animal power were discovered approximately 2300 years ago. Grinding became an industry between 1850-1900 and its use on this scale started in France and Hungary in the 19th century. Pneumatic conveying began to be used frequently in industry in the 20th century and computers were used to control the process.
The two main products obtained by grinding the wheat grain are wheat flour and bran grain. For the miller who first processes the wheat, the quality is that the white flour yield and grinding quality of the wheat is high, but the energy consumption is low. Wheat flour yield is not only an important feature of the milling industry, but also an important feature of wheat quality.
The main processes in the processing of wheat in the milling industry can be grouped under three headings. Reception and storage of wheat, cleaning and separating from foreign materials, blending, washing and tempering if needed are preparatory processes. In the second stage, crushing and thinning rollers and sieve sets; The grinding process is carried out with the help of semolina-bran purification devices. The last stage is flour storage and blending processes. All these process steps performed during the processing of wheat affect the qualitative and quantitative properties of the milling products to be obtained.
Grinding techniques can be examined under the headings of dry, semi-wet and wet grinding. The purpose of dry milling is to produce high quality refined or whole grain flour. Dry grinding or, in its general use, milling includes the processing of grain products tempered in the 14-18% moisture range, especially wheat, into flour or semolina, more often using roller milling systems.
Semi-wet grinding products are used in the production of corn semolina, which is used in the formulation of breakfast cereals and snacks. The moisture content of corn varies between 20-30% in the milling process using pin/needle, hammer or roller milling systems. In dry and semi-wet grinding technique, grain products are reduced in size in a controlled manner. Simultaneously, its anatomical parts are purified and flour or semolina is obtained as the main product, and bran and germ are obtained as by-products.
Wet milling is industrially separating the basic components of grain or pseudo grains by physical, chemical, biochemical and mechanical processes. The wet grinding technique takes place in a rich water environment. By using wet grinding technology of pseudo-cereal proteins under different conditions, protein additives with high functional properties can be produced.
In the dry milling technique, the main chemical components in the grain cannot be obtained separately, while in the wet milling technique, some grain parts of the grain such as germ bran and some chemical components like protein and starch can be obtained separately. While wet grinding requires a high amount of clean water, dry grinding uses less water than wet grinding.
In the milling industry, the main objective is to provide a product of specific quality to the customer and to effectively separate the main parts of the wheat grain (bran, embryo and endosperm). Quality for the producers who process the wheat into the final product is that it has the most suitable chemical, rheological, physical and physicochemical properties for the product they are processing.
Maintaining the stability of criteria that are important from the milling flow such as ash, yield and capacity is important for the sustainability of mill performance. Factors affecting the grinding performance in the mill; These are the distance settings of the rollers used in the grinding process, the sandblasting of the liso rollers at regular intervals and the sieve performance.
By using experimental grinding methods (AACC 1983, 26-20, 26-21, 26-30), commercial grinding performance can be determined by grinding wheat with the help of laboratory research mills. With Bastak Brand 4000, 4500, 4500S, 1800, 1600, 1650 1900 and 1900S model laboratory type double passage mills, the values of the sample to be ground in the factory are determined in advance and necessary changes and arrangements are made in the process.
Bastak company produces roller, hammer and burner mills with 8 different types of mills. It is the only manufacturer in the world with such a wide range of mills. With the different types of mills mentioned, especially humidity, it allows physical, chemical, microbiological, physicochemical, photochemical, rheological and organoleptic tests to be performed. Our mills are used in many sectors that the industry needs. More than 20,000 devices of Bastak technology, including laboratory mills, are actively working in 150 countries around the world. A very significant amount of economic assets in the global scope are classified by testing the samples prepared by Bastak Laboratory mills. These mills have been offered to be use in all universities, academicians, research centers and international quality control laboratories in the world by taking the ICC standard and have received international standards.
Its results have become unquestionably acceptable around the world. With the values obtained from these mills, the quality control of the semi-finished product is carried out starting from the analysis of the raw material at the entrance of the factory. Thus, the quality control of the semi-finished material to be released is predetermined. By giving millions of dollars, companies classify the raw materials they buy with the help of our laboratory mills with sensitive international standardization, determine their economic value and are sure of the product they make. They benefit from Bastak laboratory mills in order to reach the target quality by identifying the problem they will encounter before producing the product, taking the necessary precautions, and providing the raw material blends.
Importance of Humidity Factor for Food Safety in Raw Materials
Rabia Tiryaki, MsC., Bastak Instruments
With the increase in production in line with the needs of mankind, the food industry has shown great developments and production capacities have reached huge dimensions. It is important to maintain the physical, sensory and microbial quality characteristics of foodstuffs in the process from the production stage to the sales stage and to deliver them to the consumer in a way that does not harm health.
Water is one of the main parameters that control the rate of deterioration as one of the main components of foodstuffs. Water, one of the main components of foodstuffs, is present in different proportions and in different forms in foodstuffs of plant and animal origin. Free water in the content of foods; It is the most abundant water type in quantity and the most easily distinguishable water type with the applied process. Adsorbed water is ignited as a thin film layer on the surface of its components or structural molecules. Bound water is the form of water that cannot be used by biochemical reactions and microorganisms and is bound by H (hydrogen) bonds in a single molecular layer. The amount of water in foods is expressed as % moisture and the amount of moisture refers to the sum of free, adsorbed and bound water in the food.
Moisture content analysis, which is one of the most frequently used basic analyses in the processing and control of foodstuffs, is an important factor affecting food durability, but moisture content for different foodstuffs is limited by standards and regulations. Microorganism activity increases with the increase of moisture content above a certain amount. In addition to this, in case of an increase in moisture content in cereals and legumes with low moisture content, undesirable conditions such as moulds, frying, sprouting, harmful insects, toxins, etc. are observed. Nonenzymatic (non-enzymatic) browning reactions in foods occur when the amount of water increases.
Maintaining the quality of the grain, preventing losses is the basic principle for the safe storage of grains and the protection of food safety. From the producer's point of view, it is undesirable to purchase excess water in the purchase of raw materials, and the same is true for the consumer. The amount of water is very important for the production of bread, pasta and biscuits with high textural quality and durability, and the moisture parameter is a key point in terms of grinding of cereals, homogenous dough mixture, concentration and consistency control in the process stage.
Knowing the moisture functions as well as the physical properties of the grain in the process from growing to consumption of wheat, which is indispensable for cereal products, is an important parameter in raw material classification, selection and processing to the end product and is a factor that the producer should consider in process control.
Moisture content of cereals is the most important factor affecting the storage time and it varies according to the maturity of the seeds during harvest and the drying process after harvest. Moisture content, which is an important factor in limiting microorganism growth and enzymatic activity, must be controlled to reduce storage losses. The moisture content of cereal products is generally required to be 14% and below and 12-13% is the ideal ratio.
Excessive water content in wheat reduces its commercial value by causing a decrease in dry matter, and makes storage difficult by encouraging germination as a result of bacterial and fungal activity. Especially in the maturity period of wheat, it is seen that the moisture content of the grain is higher in the crop years with more rainfall.
With the 16000 model Moisture Meter Device, which is produced with the world's highest quality machinery and the latest technology in Bastak factory with a closed area of 7000 square metres; moisture analysis of 40 different samples in cereals, nuts, legumes, oil seeds, feed and feed raw materials can be performed in 8-10 seconds in accordance with international standards.
Coffee seed, sesame, walnut, coconut, peanut, pistachio, hazelnut, sunflower seed, almond, pumpkin seed, black pepper, lentil, bean, pea, paddy, rice, barley, corn, gin corn, poppy, sesame, chickpea, cotton seed, soya meal, sunflower meal, Bastak Moisture Meter can also be used for feed, soya meal, durum wheat, wheat, bran, semolina, flour, soya, rye, rape, oat, maize, barley, millet, sorghum. Fast and precise results can be obtained with the gold-plated high-precision sensors on the Bastak Moisture Meter. Thanks to its easily replaceable industrial battery, it is possible to perform many tests.
Thanks to the ergonomic structure of the device and the special production carrying case, it can be easily used in both factory and field conditions by offering a unique analysis experience to the user. Thanks to its plastic body, it is resistant to falls and bumps. Aluminium parts are anodised and metal parts are galvanised before painting in order to prevent corrosion to which the device will be exposed and to be used for years.
Near-Infrared Transform (N.I.R) Principle in Food Analysis
Food chemistry, food microbiology, food physicochemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, general chemistry, biochemistry, instrumental analysis, and nutrition are various branches of food sciences that constitute an international scientific field. It encompasses systems where devices and equipment incorporating all physical, chemical, electrical-electronic, computer, and mechanical technologies and principles are developed and used.
With the continuously growing world population, the diversification of product groups, and the increasing demand for food, the importance of topics such as quality control, food safety, and food assurance significantly affects not only human health but also society, the environment, and ecosystem health.
Bastak Instruments, which has been serving as a Research and Innovation Hub in the fields of food, grain, oilseed, legume, and feed in the world and in Turkey for a quarter of a century, pursues a policy that ensures food safety and assurance, is environmentally friendly, consumer-oriented, sustainable, and fights against scarcity and food waste.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in rapid, reliable, and environmentally friendly technologies for the analysis of food components. The dependence of traditional methods on multiple devices and chemicals, their time-consuming nature, and the need for an analyst have led to the development of various alternative technologies.
Bastak Instruments, with its international staff and state-of-the-art machinery park in the fields of food science and food technology, has pioneered environmentally friendly technologies using robotic sampling systems, technological and fast solutions that facilitate modern life, and advanced sensors.
Spectroscopic analyses are based on measuring the properties of solutions, such as the absorption, transmission, or reflection of light. The absorption of a specific wavelength of light by a substance is a characteristic feature, much like other physical or chemical properties.
Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy, one of the widely used technologies as an alternative to traditional food analysis methods, covers the wavelength range of 780 (12800 cm-1) to 2500 nm (4000 cm-1) in the electromagnetic spectrum. It forms absorption bands related to the vibrations of molecular bonds such as O-H, C-H, C-O, and N-H within the structure.
NIR Spectroscopy is based on the principle of correlating the absorption of electromagnetic spectrum in the mentioned wavelength range with the quality characteristics of food samples and resolving this correlation.
NIR Spectroscopy has been extensively researched and practically applied in various areas such as determining the milling properties of cereals, protein and moisture content, wet and dry gluten, Zeleny sedimentation, SDS sedimentation, miksograph peak resistance, gliadin and glutenin, essential amino acids, color, ash, starch damage, water absorption, dough strength, quality characteristics of fermented dough, and rheological properties of dough. It has also been used in researching and obtaining applicable data on determining the energy of various grain products, monitoring structural changes in bread during storage, determining wheat varieties, and quality analysis of bread.
The ICC Method studies using Bastak Instruments' DA 9000 NIR Technology provide users with a unique analysis experience globally, including research and development institutes, universities, quality control laboratories, and industries in many countries, including the United States, Canada, and Europe.
NIR Technique is widely used in the quantitative analysis of various components in fields such as chemistry, pharmacy, agriculture, etc. In the technology of grain, especially; results of quality criteria, including gluten, protein, ash, and sediment, can be determined with high accuracy. Grains can show differences in quality characteristics depending on the climate and soil characteristics of the region where they are grown. Therefore, developing calibration models with new data, obtaining accuracy and reliability of results with a high determination coefficient (R2) value are essential.
This technique does not damage the sample, and samples can be reused repeatedly. Multiple analysis results can be obtained simultaneously with one recorded spectrum. Thus, it is faster, more environmentally friendly, and economical compared to classical methods since no chemicals are used.
Bastak Instruments' NIR technology, which operates on the principle of near-infrared transform, is used in quality controls from raw material supply to the final product control in leading quality control laboratories worldwide. The DA 9000 NIR Devices, which use the NIR Technology, provide a sensitivity of one-thousandth of a millimeter, allowing for quality controls routinely in physical and chemical analyses of food and agricultural products.
Thanks to Bastak Instruments' superior and unparalleled NIR Technology, gluten value, protein value, moisture value, ash value, and Zeleny Sedimentation value in red wheat, white wheat, pasta wheat, and flour samples are measured within seconds.